Thursday, March 26, 2020
Mcdonalds Green Marketing Strategy Essay How McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s Change Their Customer Perspective and Increase Their Sales with Green Marketing The green issue has became a global issue since year 1990s, peak in year 2000s. In business, it can drive people perspective to choose which brand was good or bad. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s probably is one of the company that realize this issue is very important for their business in this century. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s is the biggest fast food chain in the world with more than 32,000 outlets in 117 countries. The company has employed more than 1. 7 million people. Last year, theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve made 1. 2 bn out from 6. 1 bn. For years, many critics came up against McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s about how bad they treat world environment and questioning how far they care about people healths, especially on obesity. The most famous Ã¢â¬Å"attackÃ¢â¬ to this fast food company probably was a documentary film that tells a people who eat McdonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s meals for a month would hasten his death. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s also considered to have responbility of 28% waste package (littering) in UK. Public suggested the company to more persuade their customers not to do littering. And also, public critics McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s happy meal which caused early obesity to child. We will write a custom essay sample on Mcdonalds Green Marketing Strategy specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Mcdonalds Green Marketing Strategy specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Mcdonalds Green Marketing Strategy specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Those critics had succeed to change people perspective, in year 2000, their income declined with some outlets shut as their new record. Started in 2000s, McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s is fighting back, massively and quietly counter the critics with green marketing. It is not only to increase the company sales, but more important to change the way customers think about McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s, their perspective. But how they do it? McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s is not sustainable company from the beginning, they has core DNA to create delicious food, fatty foods, and sugary foods. They must be careful to take an action, the green strategy not only have to change customers willing to buy, but also it could reduce cost and generate more valuable profit. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s is aiming to blow up their green with five criteria, there are nutrition and well-being, sustainable supply chain, environmental responbility, employee experience, and community. They started to create a new logo Ã¢â¬âswitching their traditional red background with the deep green one- to promote a eco-friendlier image. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s has done a lot of things in order to prove their environmental responbility to their customers, especially by reduce the energy they used. In Germany, at less 100 McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s restaurant would use the green logo by the end of year 2009. And also, some restaurant in Great Britain and France would too. They started to use eco-friendly package Ã¢â¬â 80 percent of their package was made of renewable resources-. They change white napkins with plain brown, which saves 1. 3 million dollars annualy, while reducing energy, woods and water use. In France, some restaurants has made an innovation to use eco-friendly sofware that can reduce electricity usage by 11%. In Sweden, they use CO2 detector in their restaurants to adjust ventilation, which is reduce the usage of electricity by 15% anually. Various anti-littering campaign is spread to many countries, such as Portugal, UK, France, Switzerland, Australia, and others countries. From their menu, they change a bit in the name of their customer health, they reduce French fries size, adding fruits to its food, bring more healthier salad, less sugar drinks and foods, even low fat foods. Moreover, in Germany, there are some restaurants that provide no burgers and sells salad at just 7 euros, they can choose 5 traditional salads and mix it. Another weapons is sells coffee Ã¢â¬âsustainbly grown coffee and organic milk- with brand McCafe, while they offering low-calorie foods in the other sides. This strategy was made a significant growth, in Germany there are currently 1386 reaturants with 737 integrated McCafe inside, encouraged by a worlwide revenues of 23. 5 billions dollars. They also made a contribution to the local communities, all supply of each restaurants is provided by the local farmers in that city, except their global sponsor drinks, Coca-Cola. They also prove that they care about woman livings, 28. 1% of worldwide top management (VP and Ups) are women, while 50% Company Owned Restaurant Managers are women too. The last but not least, more than 30 countries recognises McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s as great place to work. All of green things above was successfully delivered to customers by various medias, it proved by the increasing growth 13% sales in year 2011 from year 2008. And also, the legendary Big Mac sales rose 10 percent last year, helping keep the company stock price to nearly $100 a share. In the other hand, the advertising budget has been estimated to exceed $2 billion. It shows that McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s has successfully came back to winning by counter critics with the right strategic green marketing. They do the strategy without change the Ã¢â¬Å"fastfoodÃ¢â¬ image, but they do with showing their will and contribution to the environment. Finally, it can change human perspective and willing to buy with the increasing sales as the success parameter. Sources Birkner, Christine. 2012. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s Scores Itself on Sustainability: Will Consumers Be Ã¢â¬ËLovinÃ¢â¬â¢ ItÃ¢â¬â¢?. http://www. marketingpower. com/ResourceLibrary/Documents/newsletters/mne/2012/1/mne_mcdonalds_sustainability. pdf. September 3rd 2012. O Brien, Keith. 2012. How McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s Came Back Bigger Than Ever. http://www. nytimes. com/2012/05/06/magazine/how-mcdonalds-came-back-bigger-than-ever. html? _r=1pagewanted=allpagewanted=all. September 3rd 2012 Environmental Leader. 2012. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s Counters Criticism With Green Marketing Effort. http://www. environmentalleader. com/2009/05/19/mcdonalds-serves-up-green-practices/. September 3rd 2012. Salisbury, Peter. 2011. Behind the Brand: McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s. http://www. theecologist. org/green_green_living/behind_the_label/941743/behind_the_brand_mcdonalds. html. September 3rd 2012 Laura, Nerdy. 2011. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s going green Ã¢â¬â IÃ¢â¬â¢m lovinÃ¢â¬â¢ it. Ã¢â¬ ¦?. http://businessnerds. wordpress. com/2011/05/29/mcdonald%E2%80%99s-going-green-%E2%80%93-i%E2%80%99m-lovin%E2%80%99-it/. September 3rd 2012.
Friday, March 6, 2020
Analytical Essay Sample on #8220;A Very Old Man with Enormous WingsÃ¢â¬Â by Gabriel Garcia Marquez
Analytical Essay Sample on #8220;A Very Old Man with Enormous WingsÃ¢â¬ by Gabriel Garcia Marquez The short story Ã¢â¬Å"A Very Old Man with Enormous WingsÃ¢â¬ by Gabriel Garcia Marquez exposes the tendencies of human nature and society in general. The reactions of all the members of the community to the events in the story reflect their inclinations as human beings, both good and bad. Pelayo lives in rural area with his wife and child. One afternoon he was shocked to find that a very old man with wings was lying face down in the mud in his courtyard. At first he was frightened and ran to retrieve his wife to see what she would make of it. Upon her arrival they had both stared at the man together in a mute stupor for quite some time. This is a typical reaction from most people in such a situation. At first they were in a state of fear, fear of the unfamiliar. When people are exposed to a scenario that is out of the ordinary for them and conflicts with their everyday lives they grow afraid and even hostile. Then a stage of curiosity follows, Pelayo and his wife quietly observe the man from a distance as to gather any information they can about him. After observing the man who seemed frail and uncivilized they decide to call upon a neighbour who might be knowledgeable in such situations. She wasted no time in proclaiming that he must be an Ã¢â¬Å"angelÃ¢â¬ . Her re action to the man with wings was influenced purely by her faith. Her blind assumption was made because of what she has been taught and what she wanted to believe. This is typical of people who are very religious as they tend to interpret various events as having a deeper more meaningful significance. Ã¢â¬Å"The angel was held captive in PelayoÃ¢â¬â¢s house.Ã¢â¬ (Marquez 487) MarquezÃ¢â¬â¢s choice of words reflects her intention to show PelayoÃ¢â¬â¢s hostility towards the angel. He also watched over him all afternoon with a bailiffÃ¢â¬â¢s club. He is obviously uncertain of the angel and decides to imprison him and take no chances. He does not think very much of the angel because he Ã¢â¬Å"dragsÃ¢â¬ him into in a chicken coop and locks him up among the hens. This act demonstrates basic human nature, the angel was old, unattractive, and decrepit, so he tosses him in a filthy coop. Pelayo judges him solely on his appearance, had the Ã¢â¬Å"angelÃ¢â¬ looked like an angel is supposed to like and had been all white, attractive, and sophisticated, Pelayo would most likely honour and respect him rather than treat him like an animal. Pelayo even considered putting him on a raft and leaving him to die on the high seas. The members of the community quickly learned of this Ã¢â¬Å"angelÃ¢â¬ that has been found and they became very interested. Ã¢â¬Å"The simplest among them thought that he should be named mayor of the world. Others of sterner mind felt that he should be prompted to the rank of five-star general in order to win all wars. Some visionaries hoped that he could be put to stud in order to implant on earth a race of winged wise who could take charge of the universe.Ã¢â¬ (Marquez 488) This shows the hopes and expectations of the members of the community. Many had dreams of grandeur and had relied on this angel to put an end to all worldly problems as if he was sent down from god. These expectations however were not rational, they were merely based on their own beliefs and the hype that this angel had generated. Human beings in general are always looking for the easy way out and the simplest way to get a means to their end. This angel served as the answer they had all hoped for. As the story moves forward the people of the town come to realise that this angel was not at all what they had expected nor hoped for. They have grown hostile towards him, they had begun pulling out his feathers, throwing stones at him, or even burning him with an iron. This type of reaction is not unusual in such a situation, they have grown bored of this angel as he does nothing but lie still and try to make himself comfortable. This type of behaviour is exemplified in everyday life in the case of celebrities. As entertainers they keep us amused and fulfill our needs, but when their product turns stale or their songs get played out we lose interest and turn against them. We see this everyday on late night television where hosts poke fun at such celebrities, recently we have seen what the media hype has done to Michael JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation. Meanwhile the carnival has come into town and suddenly everyone has forgotten about the angel and stopped caring. Why see the angel when you can see the tarantula woman? Something bigger and better has arisen and the people of the community have moved on to the next big thing. Why do people act the way they do? Is it selfishness? It is a fact that manÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest goal is his own happiness, therefore he can sometimes be insensitive to the people that he walks all over in order to achieve it. Altruism is possible, but even then man gains some satisfaction from his unselfish act, which contributes to his happiness. The society in this short story perfectly reflects human nature and how it sometimes can be ugly. However, for the most part individuals are able to differentiate what is and is not moral and act decently.
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Quick Response (QR) Codes - Coursework Example This particular code is quite widespread in several nations throughout the globe including Japan and Germany and is gaining popularity in terms of execution by a greater level (Petersen, 2012). With this concern, this paper intends to present the advantages along with the disadvantages regarding the execution of QR codes. Advantages and Disadvantages of QR Codes After acquiring a brief idea about the notion of QR codes, it can be viewed that QR codes possesses certain advantages along with disadvantages. Today, this particular code is widely adopted and executed in every operational field or industry such as healthcare for the purpose of mitigating any adverse situation. In accordance with the scenario provided, it can be observed that it is the emergency workers in Marin Country who are largely using this particular advanced technology i.e. QR codes in order to save an extensive figure of lives in emergency situations. This technology i.e. QR code is often considered to be Ã¢â¬Å"ne w-fangled technologyÃ¢â¬ which has proved to be quiet effective in healthcare segment. Prior to discussing about the advantages and the disadvantages of QR codes, it is quite indispensable to acquire a brief idea about the facets of QR codes. In this regard, QR codes are quite cost-effective and any individual can effectively use a QR code for the purpose of addressing any situation. ... It is widely accepted that QR codes are typically adopted and exploited especially with the intention of tracking humans in terms of recognizing different information systems and image-processing (Yeo, Pan, Lee, & Chang, 2012). Specially mentioning, certain decisive facets of QR codes such as massive storage capacity and fast readability can prove to be much advantageous for individuals along with organizations. With regard to analyzing the advantages along with the disadvantages of QR codes, it can be noted that QR codes have replaced the utilization of 2D barcodes that were invented in the early period of 1990s. QR codes were mainly invented and incorporated in the year 1994 which has resulted in lessening the usage of 2D barcodes by a significant level. The major advantages of QR codes include its provided facility to store several sorts of valuable information and reveal precise data. In terms of advantages, it can be stated that unlike other barcodes that require to be read with certain output services such as physical scanners, QR codes can be perceived by a mobile device facilitating the users to perform different functions effortlessly (Furht, 2011). On the other hand, certain disadvantages of QR codes entail limited compatibility, the requirement of greater knowledge about advanced technological advancements, security issue and the existence of several competitors that are performing similar functions. Amongst these mentioned disadvantages, the most crucial concern is the security issue which affects personal safety at large. It can be stated that the use of QR codes will remain much restricted if an individual possesses little amount of knowledge with regard to accessing the indispensable
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
Dyslexia - Research Paper Example Experts however are having difficulty to agree on a common scientific definition of dyslexia. The British Dyslexia Association defined it as Ã¢â¬Ëa specific learning difficulty which mainly affects the development of literacy and language related skills.Ã¢â¬â¢ The International Dyslexia has it as a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin.Ã¢â¬â¢ (International Dyslexia Association). Rose defined dyslexia as a learning difficulty that primarily affects the skills involved in accurate and fluent word reading and spellingÃ¢â¬â¢ (Smythe 40). However experts may defined dyslexia, the disability is present when the Ã¢â¬Å"the automatization1 of word identification (reading) and/or spelling does not develop or does so very incompletely or with great difficultyÃ¢â¬ (Smythe 39) and the theories on the etiology of dyslexia is an ever evolving process due to the continuous research made about it. Research also showed that the origin of dyslexia is generally heredit ary with some genes that were identified to be generally predisposed to having dyslexia. The specific genes that research has identified to be more predisposed to acquiring dyslexia were brain based. Recent research showed that there are nine chromosomes that are directly linked to the learning difficulty. ... Four of the genes Ã¢â¬âDYX1C1 (DYX1), KIAA0319 (DYX2), DCDC2 (DYX2) and ROBO1 (DYX5) Ã¢â¬â have been implicated in neuronal migration and guidance, suggesting the importance of early neurodevelopmental processes in reading developmentÃ¢â¬ (41). Four more additional possible areas (PCNT, DIP2A, S100B and PRMT2) in the chromosome region 21q22.3 have been identified to be linked with dyslexia. This genetic heritability of dyslexia was also confirmed by the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study of Reading Disability whose study suggests that the shared genetic influence accounted for Ã¢â¬Å"86% and 49% of the phenotypic correlations between the two assessments for twin pairs with and without reading difficulties respectively (Wadsworth et al 150) With regard to who gets this disability among the population, Lowenstein reported that the difficulty learning as caused by dyslexia is a condition that affects one in five people3. Some of the obvious symptoms that is correlated with dyslexi a include letter reversals in hand writing4, delays in speech and being easily distracted by noise (webmd). Symptoms can also include very poor spelling of words and blending of rhyming of sounds to make words. The classic example to illustrate this spelling difficulty is the paper written by Lowenstein where it was titled Ã¢â¬Å"Pediatrician: Dyslexia affects one if five peopleÃ¢â¬ . Due to difficulty in reading, students who has dyslexia were also were also found to have difficulty summarizing stories. Learning a foreign language was also found to be a challenge among dyslexics and so is memorizing words and concepts. In extreme cases, a very small population of dyslexics was known to rotate letters when reading reverse words when they write. In the study of Morton and Frith,
Monday, January 27, 2020
Influence of Types of Play on Children It is important to understand the different types of play and how they help childrens development in order to plan activities for children. This will help them to develop holistically. The Early Years Foundation Strategy says that play underpins all development and learning for young children (The Early Years Foundation Stage Practice Guidance p1.17 Crown 2008). Learning through play is a very important principle of Early Years education, staff must provide opportunities for all the types of play:- Imaginative Play Construction Play Home corner Lego blocks Dressing up Building towers Small worlds Physical Play Creative Play Examples: tricycles, Sensory Play Drawing and skipping ropes Water and sand play painting, crafts Children may play in different ways to what you expect, this doesnt matter, it shows their creativity. They may be running round outside in a superhero costume waving a sword they made out of a cardboard tube (physical + imaginative + creative), this helps them to develop holistically. Types of play for children ages 2 to 8 Physical This is any play with a focus which is physical. Children can be playing indoors or outside with balls, ride on toys. They can be climbing, running about or throwing and catching a ball. Physical play helps with motor skills, this gives more confidence. The children interact with each other when they are playing games outside, they learn the rules, how to negotiate, take turns, solve arguments, this helps with social skills. Resources needed To help with motor skills and co-ordination you would provide balls of various sizes, ride on toys and trikes, and skipping ropes, hula hoops. Space to play games like hopscotch, tag or football. For 6-8 year olds you could have a basketball hoop, inline skates and bikes. Example from nursery In my nursery setting the children play outdoors and there is equipment accessible for them at all times such as scooters. There are only two scooters which gives the opportunity for children to learn how to share and take it in turns to use the scooter. They must communicate with each other in order to ask if they can have a go on the scooter and have to wait their turn to use it, this improves their social skills and language. The scooters help to improve the childrens physical development greatly as the children have to be able to balance and use their legs to be able to move around the area on the scooter. They enhance the childrens gross motor skills. When the children are riding the scooters they can make their own decisions on where they want to go and think for themselves improving their cognitive development. Development through physical play may be affected if there arent enough resources available so children have to wait a long time for a go on a tricycle for example. This can be helped by sending children out in small groups so you have enough things for them to play on. Imaginative Children enjoy pretending, it helps them with their speech language and communication skills, their social skills, their identity. There are lots of different types of imaginative play:- Pretend play children make an object into something else, a ruler can be a wand for a magician. Role play using props, the children play act different roles they are familiar with such as Mummy Daddy, brothers and sisters, going shopping. Socio dramatic play a group of children play out scenes from real life such as taking their dog to the vet. This type of play is better for children with good language skills, children with English not their first language will not get as much out of this, they will need support from staff to help improve language skills. Superhero children dress up to act out their heroes from films they have seen like Toy Story, Shrek, Spiderman and Frozen. Small world using small animals, cars, toy soldiers children enjoy making up situations and manipulating the objects. They could act out a battle or be a farmer looking after the animals. Resources Plenty of dressing up costumes in different sizes Everyday items for baking, shopping at supermarket, Farm and zoo animals, miniature cars, toy soldiers Play house Example from nursery In the home corner we have used containers of real products that have been filled with coloured liquid or a substance that isnt dangerous for the children, such as a used Vimto bottle filled with water which has been coloured with purple food colouring to look like actually Vimto. There is also a washing up powder box filled with table salt as well as more everyday objects that the children will watch their parents handling. These resources give the children a real-life experience enabling them to use their imagination and creativity. They can also improve their fine motor skills as they pretend to poor drinks and serve food. Children can improve their communications skills as they talk to the other children and role play situations they have witnessed at home. These resources also help the children to enhance their social skills as they interact with the other children. Good language skills are needed for imaginative play so children will find it harder to join in if they have delays in language. Practitioners need to be aware of this so they can support the children with a different type of play which helps their holistic development. Sensory Experiencing how water, sand, play dough, gloop feel and what you can do with them helps with fine motor skills and eye-hand coordination. At the same time children are learning about texture and properties of materials, maths concepts of volume and shape. Resources Sand and water Play dough bought or home made Food mashed potato, pasta Example from nursery In my nursery, they have a sand tray which they have access to all the time. There are different objects in the sand such as stones, buckets, spades and miniature animals. The sand can be made into different consistencies, it can be completely dry with no water this allows the children to feel the sand between their hands and put it into containers and pour it out. When water is added to the sand it makes it malleable so the children can build sandcastles and other things with it. It promotes the child imagination and creativity. This type of sensory play is very relaxing for the children and is very good for children with disabilities, they can enjoy the feel of the sand on their hands. Sand play can advance a childs physical development, they use their upper bodies to handle the sand and play with the objects. They can dig, poor, scoop and grab the sand which also improves the childrens hand eye coordination. When children play in the sand they usually play alongside other children therefore this encourages their social skills. They must learn how to share the objects and get a space around the sand tray for themselves. Sand play also promotes cognitive development as the children are learning about the conservation of matter as they play with the sand, pouring it into different size and shape containers. Creative Creative play is when children make or create something, they use the resources you provide but it is important they choose what they want to do. This helps with fine motor skills, eye-hand coordination, expressing and releasing emotions. They learn to manage frustration and how practising something helps you improve. When the child succeeds after they keep trying, they feel a lot of satisfaction. An example of this is making a necklace from beads. This requires good eye-hand coordination to thread the beads and patience if they keep falling off the elastic. The child learns to persevere and not give up. Also, they can help each other which develops their social skills. It is important for staff to not jump in to help, to encourage the child to keep trying. Resources Drawing and painting paper, card, paints, crayons, brushes Musical instruments mouth organ, kazoo, recorder, drums, small keyboard Collage materials glitter, textiles, glue, beads, feathers, string Junk for modelling boxes, tubes Modelling kits for 6-8 year olds Example from nursery In the nursery, there is a box with lots of recycled containers and materials such as, milk cartons, cardboard boxes, straws and lots more. The chldren can make whatever they want with the materials and they are given the freedom to do so. All the materials help develop the childrens creativity, they can experiment with the resources and use their imagination to think up ideas of what they want to make. When children handle the materials they are improving their fine motor skills as they are using their muscles in their hands to cut with scissors, and use their fingers to stick things together. Construction Children enjoy putting things together such as jigsaws, wood blocks and constructing things for example lego/duplo. They can make dens from sheets over chairs or out of large boxes. This helps with hand-eye coordination, spatial awareness, how things work. Building a tall tower gives a sense of achievement this helps self-esteem. Resources Jigsaws, bricks, model aircraft and trains Different sizes of cardboard boxes Example from nursery In the outdoor space of my nursery they have a construction area with large coloured plastic bricks. The children can build towers and walls and knock them over and rebuild them. Playing with the bricks gives the children a good opportunity to advance their social skills and communication as they cooperate to build a tall tower. They must be able to share the bricks with the other children and take it in turns to build what they want to. They use their gross motor skills to place the bricks on top of each other and as the tower gets taller they have to reach up to place the bricks on top. If another child knocks down their tower, they have to learn how to express their emotions of anger, frustration, upset and assert themselves to tell the child not to do it again. Case Study 2-8 year olds In The Secret Life of 5 year Olds TV programme Jude struggles with being on the losing team when they are doing an obstacle course challenge. The winners get some chocolate and he wants some as well. He thinks it isnt fair that only the winners get the chocolate, he gets very upset and angry and cries. He asks his friends to get it for him. At first they try but it annoys the other children so they stop playing with him. Jude isnt able to control his emotions and accept he lost. He cant put himself in their shoes to see their point of view. The teacher sees that Jude needs her help and support to manage his emotions. In the next episode she takes him to one side and quietly supports him, she explains a better way to react. This enables Jude to behave differently the next time, he has developed his social and emotional areas of development. In the next task he shows that he has learned how to manage his feelings when he loses because he says Well done to the winning team (episodes 1 a nd 2 Channel 4 Nov 29th and Dec 6th 2016). The other children want to play with him more because he isnt having a tantrum. Sometimes you have to get involved to help a child develop to the next level. If the teacher had just left Jude to carry on getting angry, he would have lost his friends and not learnt a better way to lose. Types of play for children ages 0 2 Play is different for babies, they learn through their senses. Also, they need a lot more interaction and supervision from adults. Treasure basket Elinor Goldschmied had the idea for Treasure Baskets. This is an activity for babies who can sit on the floor unsupported and grasp objects. Lots of natural objects are put in a low basket that a baby can reach into. The adult is nearby to supervise in case the baby tries to put things in her mouth. Kathy Brodie says No plastic! (KathyBrodie.com) She means that you should provide natural resources with lots of different shapes and textures. Toys are smooth and plastic so the baby wont learn much from picking one up, they are too young to do much more than touch, smell and taste at this age. It is important to let the baby choose what to explore, the role of the adult is to supervise so the child is safe and to reassure them by being nearby. The objects can include things which are light or heavy, rigid or squishy, warm or cold. Lots of variety stimulates the babys senses, this helps development in the brain, new neural connections are made. Using the treasure basket helps develop hand-eye coordination, it also helps the baby get stronger muscles. The activity could last as long as 45 minutes depending on the childs interest and concentration. If they put things in their mouths you need to clean them before another child gets the basket. Review the contents regularly and change the objects to keep the babies interested. Example of resources Low sided basket with about 30 objects in Natural fir cones, pebbles, shells Wood spoons, pegs, wooden curtain rings Metal bells, whisk, small pan, teaspoon Others pot pourri bag, soap, fabrics, hairbrush, mirror, lemon Heuristic Play This is for older babies and toddlers, they want to find out what they can do with objects, not just touch them like the babies. As well as the objects from a treasure basket, you can add man-made things so the toddler can widen their exploring. Bigger objects can be used as the children can stand up, they have more control over their movements. This is a child-directed activity like for the treasure baskets, adults just supervise, they dont get involved unless there is a danger or the child invites them. In communityplaythings.co.uk Helen Huleatt says When toddlers make an enjoyable discovery for instance when one item fits into another, or an interesting sound is produced they often repeat the action several times to test the result, which strengthens cognitive development as well as fine muscle control and hand/eye coordination. Heuristic play needs a clear space for the objects and children, objects are grouped into types for example, all the tins in one group, the fabrics in another. The role of the practitioner is to set out the area then sit quietly nearby. At the end of the session the children can help to clear away, they can develop cognitive ability by sorting types of objects or colours into boxes they came out of. It is important to choose the right time for this activity, if the children are tired, they cant concentrate very well. Observing what the children interact with and how they use the objects will mean you can develop these interests in other types of play. For example, if you notice a child who enjoys sorting things by colour, you could help them to learn the names of the colours in a construction activity with different coloured bricks. Supervision is important to ensure the children dont put things is their mouths or break things causing sharp edges. Staff need to be near enough to intervene but not distract their concentration. If a child doesnt seem to be interested, they may be tired or hungry, there may not be enough objects to attract them. Example of resources Objects from the treasure baskets can be used Cotton reels, buttons, fabrics Containers of different shapes and size, made of different materials Tubes for pushing things through, cardboard boxes Peek a Boo and Hide and Seek Babies enjoy games like Peek a boo. As well as being fun it helps them to learn about object permanence. At first when something is out of sight a very young baby will think it no longer exists, they are surprised when you peek out. By about 4 or 5 months old babies know an object still exists even if they cant see it, they start to anticipate seeing you. Older babies and toddlers like playing Hide and Seek, especially when the adult pretends they cant see them. The game encourages children to develop problem-solving skills by finding a place to hide or looking for everyone. They improve physical ability by running about looking for a hiding place to squeeze into. They develop social skills by taking turns Resources Provide small spaces where children can hide Roll a ball Roll a ball helps a young childs holistic development. They develop hand-eye coordination and balance by rolling the ball, they learn about taking turns which develops social skills; their communication skills develop by listening to an adult talk about the activity. Resources Different sized balls Case study 11 months old The baby I have been observing plays Peek a Boo with her Mum. Her Mum said at first she got upset when she hid behind her hands but slowly she realised her Mum was still there. When I watched, the baby was laughing and smiling. She wanted her Mum to keep doing it. This game helped the baby to understand that when her Mum leaves the room she will come back so she doesnt get upset and cry for her. A strong attachment is very important for young babies to develop so they need to learn this as soon as possible. Resources to support play and learning A good variety and amount of resources are needed to support children If they are good quality they will last longer, there is less chance of the children being injured. All resources need to be safe for children to use, they have to have the safety marks to show they have been tested and are safe. These are the CE mark, the Lion mark and the Kite Mark. Each age group and ability/stage of development will need its own resources. Too many toys limits creative and imaginative play so provide lots of blocks, shells and containers instead of actual toys. You need somewhere to store them all so if you put them in boxes the children can play with the boxes as well. Older children might have particular interests for example dinosaurs so you could provide a set of different types of dinosaurs, books about them, and clay for them to make models. The 6-8 year olds could make a video using their models this would help their ICT skills as well as language skills. They would improve their fine motor skills by modelling and work together to make the video, improving social skills. Another thing is about different cultures and religions. If you have children from another country, like asylum seekers, they will do things differently so you must provide resources that they recognise. This could be dressing up clothes from other countries or different play foods for the home corner. Dolls should be of different colours so a black or asian child can identify with them. Books should show children from different races and cultures being heroes, not just white children, this helps them to have a positive sense of identity. As the children grow and develop the way they play changes, it depends on the individual child. Play is more social for 4 year olds than 2 year olds because their communication skills are better, they play cooperatively, they are more imaginative. 2 year olds need supervision to ensure safety and help them engage in play but 5- 8 years olds are very independent compared to 2 year olds, they dont want adults getting involved except to sort out problems. Older children like board games, they understand rules and taking turns whereas toddlers dont have the cognitive abilities. They are not good at sharing, they think if they want something they should have it. Research on successful outcomes of Early Years provision both in the short term and for later success in school and as adults has pointed to some general guidelines. The best outcomes for childrens learning occur where most of the activity within a childs day is a mixture of: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ child-initiated play, actively supported by adults Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ focused learning, with adults guiding the learning through playful, rich experiential activities. (Learning, Playing and Interacting 2009) If children only do free play then some areas of development and skills can get missed out. They may keep repeating the same activities so they dont learn anything new. If adults direct all their play it is less fun and prevents them gaining independence, it is better to plan a range of activities and opportunities during each day or week, this ensures their needs are met. Children aged 0-2 benefit more from adult-initiated play than 2-8 year olds. This is because the older children have developed a lot further, they need less help. Older children like to make up their own games and decide what to do. If they are offered the same resources, the younger and older children will use them differently. Babies and toddlers enjoy water play because it feels good, they can splash about, it is relaxing. They develop fine motor skills using buckets and spades. However, older children play with water in a different way. They like to measure out different amounts, see what sinks and floats. They will do experiments to test out ideas or use water in role play. Conclusion Supporting childrens learning and development through play and activities is the best way to develop the child holistically. Children are unique, they develop at different rates, practitioners must observe all the time so they have a good understanding of each child and their interests. They can plan a range of opportunities to help them develop more and provide resources the child will enjoy, also to provide a challenge so they develop. References The Early Years Foundation Stage Practice Guidance 2008 p1.17 Crown Learning, Playing and Interacting: Good Practice in the Early Years Foundation Stage 2009 p5 Department for Children Schools and Families Crown 2009 http://www.kathybrodie.com/articles/treasure-baskets/ accessed 11/12/2016 www.communityplaythings.co.uk/learning-library/articles/heuristic-play accessed 11/12/2016 Bibliography http://www.ebay.co.uk/gds/8-Reasons-Why-Playing-in-the-Sand-Is-Good-for-Kids-/10000000177634049/g.html Tassoni, P. A parents guide to treasure basket and heuristic play (2015) Nursery World p30-32 Tassoni et al 2014 Pearson Education Limited, Harlow
Sunday, January 19, 2020
The majority of David MametÃ¢â¬â¢s critics give great focus or attention on the negative concepts and views of power, such as repression and exploitation. Mainly, this occurs in the analysis of the associations of power in the business world in Ã¢â¬Å"Glengarry Glen RossÃ¢â¬ (1983). A perspective that will be considered in this paper is the investigation of the positivity of exercises of power. More particularly, it will deal on human relationships which are present and crucial in David MametÃ¢â¬â¢s play. Foucauldian analytics of power comprehensively marks the Ã¢â¬Å"American dreamÃ¢â¬ and the intricacy of function of power as well as the productive effects of power in Mametian business world. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Despite the fact that David Mamet started writing plays after the year 1970, he was able to gain an influential and significant position in American literary. David MametÃ¢â¬â¢s success can be greatly attributed to several influences that honed his skills. When David Mamet was at the age of sixteen, he admired Bob Sickinger. Sickinger intensely influenced his ideas of dramaturgy. However, Bob Sickinger who was believed to be the pioneer of Ã¢â¬Å"Chicago theatreÃ¢â¬ was not the only one who had influenced David Mamet. When David Mamet attended school at the Goddard College in Vermont, he studied and trained in acting under the tutelage of Sanford Meisner. Meisner influenced David MametÃ¢â¬â¢s acting as well as his philosophy, by infusing into him the idea of practical and outward techniques, instead of the usual technique of internalization. After college, David Mamet was able to perform several unglamorous jobs in real life. He experienced driving a taxi, working at a truck factory, and cleaning offices for a living. By the year 1969, he got another job. This time, he was assigned as an office manager, particularly at a real estate sales office. Consequently, it can be observed that nearly all characters in David MametÃ¢â¬â¢s plays belong to social classes exclusive of the high-class. In addition to this, nearly all the sites of his plays and literary works are set generally in marginal places. For example, in Ã¢â¬Å"Glengarry Glen RossÃ¢â¬ , the play is set in a real-estate office. The scenes at the beginning of the play in Ã¢â¬Å"Glengarry Glen RossÃ¢â¬ create the Ã¢â¬Å"dangerous, ego-threatening world that its salesmen inhabitÃ¢â¬ (McDonough, 1963). The main characters, Aaronow, Moss, Lingk, Roma, Williamson and Levene, participate in degrading schemes needed for them to maintain jobs. An older salesman, Shelley Levene, who was unsuccessful in attaining good revenues, Ã¢â¬Å"cajoles, bullies, pleads and finally bribes his boss to grant him better leadsÃ¢â¬ (McDonough, 2006). Then, a discontented salesman, Dave Moss, campaigns to raid the sales office and acquire the leads by maneuvering the gullible George Aaronow to do the actual break-in. Lastly, top salesman Richard Roma astonishes and influences the trusting James Link into buying material goods in exchange for RomaÃ¢â¬â¢s imaginary companionship. In David MametÃ¢â¬â¢s play, these salesmen effect their sales by giving a fictive structure. A measly house becomes a remedy to needs that go beyond than that for shelter. The irony is that, for all their skepticism, they are most energetic in their individual performances. They are also most sensitive about human need when they create the fictions intended to capitalize on that need. (Bercovitch et al., 1994). These salesmen seek to ensnare their customers in language but are no less its victims themselves. In a particular scene in the play, Moss asks Aaronow if he is Ã¢â¬Å"in or outÃ¢â¬ , and further says that Ã¢â¬Å"you tell me, youÃ¢â¬â¢re out you take the consequencesÃ¢â¬ (Mamet, 1983). When Aaronow asked Ã¢â¬Å"and why is that?Ã¢â¬ , Moss capriciously responds Ã¢â¬Å"because you listenedÃ¢â¬ (Mamet, 1983). From the conversation, one of them accuses his supposed friend of complicity because he Ã¢â¬Å"listenedÃ¢â¬ (Bercovitch et al., 1994). In addition to this, irony exists because these salesmen must first understand those they would deceive before they can succeed. As such, these salesmen become hypersensitive, like a confidence trickster who masquerades as a psychic. They also become compellingly precise because they are conscious of the desperation, the fear and the need that coerce their clients into their hands. Somehow, that shared knowledge starts to grant the material desires of their clients. In a discernible disagreement, Ã¢â¬Å"those who can best connect two isolated people are those who deploy the falsities of fictionÃ¢â¬ (Bercovitch et al., 1994). The salesmen in Ã¢â¬Å"Glengarry Glen RossÃ¢â¬ are charged for their deceptions. Deceptions of which they, too, are victims, but held close for their knowledge of an existing desire for trust and connection. However, the salesmen remain unaware of the consequences because of the disparities in the language they use in the business world. In addition to this, they continue to be ignorant because of reality that is diminished by deceptions (Bercovitch et al., 1994). Once again, in contrary to the image which is sought by these salesmen to identify themselves, the image of women is introduced. In a particular scene, Levene advises Williamson at one point, Ã¢â¬Å"a manÃ¢â¬â¢s his jobÃ¢â¬ (Mamet, 1983). The apparent point is that doing a job is what makes a man; it gives a man identity. Moreover, Levene stresses that if Ã¢â¬Å"you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have the ballsÃ¢â¬ to do the job then Ã¢â¬Å"youÃ¢â¬â¢re a secretaryÃ¢â¬ (Mamet, 1983). Traditionally, secretarial jobs are performed by women. Or, as Roma exclaim to Williamson when the latter blows up a transaction, Ã¢â¬Å"where did you learn your trade, you stupid fucking cuntÃ¢â¬ (Mamet, 1983). Then further says Ã¢â¬Å"you idiot, who ever told you you could work with men?Ã¢â¬ (Mamet, 1983). If the identity of man is identified based on his performance at work, then failures classify a worker as woman. In particular, it is the differentiation of these two closely prescriptive positions that suggests any sense of identity for these salesmen. And feminine is agreed a negative position. According to McDonough , Ã¢â¬Å"it (feminine) is set up as the failure and lack that a man must overcome in order to establish and maintain his identity as a manÃ¢â¬ (1963). On the contrary, this construct of male identity stays exceedingly questionable and is continuously exposed by the same antagonism that is thought to create it. The prevailing need of David MametÃ¢â¬â¢s male characters is for confirmation of their identity, for understanding, comfort, love and friendship. However, this need is neglected because of the fear that needing anything is a sign of weakness and it is unmanly to be insecure in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s identity. Distrust of the world which the characters live produces this fear. Fear of infidelity in sexual relationships, friendship and business transactions results in distrust among everybody. In addition to this, distrust and fear lies in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of confidence within the self (McDonough, 2996). To support this, Stephen Shapiro in his study of masculinity argues that, Ã¢â¬Å"male self- mistrust is caused by narcissism and reinforced by male silence, emotional inhibition and puerile attitudes and behaviorÃ¢â¬ (1984). He also adds that Ã¢â¬Å"the division inside men, in the male psyche, has the drastic social consequence of weakening trust in all other relationshipsÃ¢â¬ (Shapiro, 1984). Moreover, that Ã¢â¬Å"weakening of the bonds of trust in these relationships causes still further decay in male self-trustÃ¢â¬ (Shapiro, 1984). In ShapiroÃ¢â¬â¢s view, it can be deduced that the characters Edmond, Bernie, Fox and Levene, are motivated by frantic uncertainty or lack of confidence regarding their manhood. According to McDonough, Ã¢â¬Å"this is a sense of powerlessness that they seek to over-compensate forÃ¢â¬ (1997). She also adds that Ã¢â¬Å"it is a need to establish their manhood in the face of real or imagined challenges to itÃ¢â¬ (McDonough, 1987). Most of the time, these challenges are personal, internal insecurities. Moreover, they are regularly protected onto the outside world; oftentimes, onto women or else onto fellow salesmen, workers or friends. Above all, David MametÃ¢â¬â¢s characters assume they have something to verify about themselves through competition with others. As a result, they are imprisoned in a vicious belief of antagonism that they cannot escape. Ã Within MametÃ¢â¬â¢s plays, antagonism shows the standards of masculinity. Roma states: Ã¢â¬Å"I swear itÃ¢â¬â¢s not a world of men. Machine, itÃ¢â¬â¢s a world of clock watchers, bureaucrats, officeholders. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a fucked up world. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s no adventure to it. Dying breed. Yes it is. We are the members of a dying breedÃ¢â¬ (Mamet, 1983). Masculinity can observed all throughout the play where salesmen refer to themselves as Ã¢â¬Å"menÃ¢â¬ .Ã However, it should be noted that they are not referring to themselves of gender. Rather, it can be deduced that the salesmen are a select order of people. As Roma reiterates that they are Ã¢â¬Å"a dying breedÃ¢â¬ . On the contrary, the Ã¢â¬Å"clock watchers, bureaucrats, officeholdersÃ¢â¬ do not refer to true men. These Ã¢â¬Å"machinesÃ¢â¬ take orders. The personality which these people have does not strongly reflect their work. This can be observed in the likes of Williamson and Shelley Ã¢â¬Å"MachineÃ¢â¬ Levine. Williamson is a non-salesman while Levene is, according to Kane, more despicable than the arrogant top salesmanÃ¢â¬ (2004). They are considered to be Ã¢â¬Å"despicable company menÃ¢â¬ who serve simply as cogs in the corporate machine. LevineÃ¢â¬â¢s former success is frequently associated with inhumanity. David Mamet implies Levene determined his own destiny but did so mechanically. In some ways, Ã¢â¬Å"Glengarry Glen RossÃ¢â¬ seems like a modernized and more mordant version of Arthur MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Death of a SalesmanÃ¢â¬ (1996). Shelley Levene in Ã¢â¬Å"Glengarry Glen RossÃ¢â¬ , just like Willy Loman in Ã¢â¬Å"Death of a SalesmanÃ¢â¬ is in the last stages of falling apart. He continues living in a largely inhuman world, one unreceptive to any but the majority of aggressive personalities. A product of this world is Levene, who has been an aggressor. However, now heÃ¢â¬â¢s old, out of luck and heÃ¢â¬â¢s being shown up in the competition. It starts to appear that perhaps he was never all that good anyway. As George affirms, Ã¢â¬Å"he (Levene) has no money, very little pride left (and) his confidence is shatteredÃ¢â¬ (1994). Conceivably the most distinguished fictional salesman is Willy Loman, whose frustrated dreams ultimately divide his family and ruins him. His unyielding quest for success, together with an idealistic view of the world, results in his being Ã¢â¬Å"done inÃ¢â¬ largely due to the capitalist system. He ignores his emotional life in the certainty that the one purpose of the real-estate business was to generate money. Although he finds that success does not bring him the contentment he seeks. Willy Loman can be considered an archetypal salesman in literature, an unusual combination of both victim and oppressor whose demise is brought about by self-delusion and societal pressure (Dean, 1990). In Ã¢â¬Å"Death of a SalesmanÃ¢â¬ , the American dream may be Willy LomanÃ¢â¬â¢s vision of a house and successful children with families of their own. And like Willy, the salesmen in David MametÃ¢â¬â¢s play all have their American dreams, though it may be different. However, these salesmen donÃ¢â¬â¢t dream of grand houses or successful children. Instead, they dream of the rich customer who will enable them to stop working for those who exploit them. They also dream continually of success. Though similarly, as a whole, both Arthur Miller and David Mamet point out the disappointments and failures of the American dream myth and the vindictiveness in capitalistic society. For numerous cohorts of writers who have assessed the American Dream, the salesman has been a symbol of its shortcomings. Indeed, being a salesman can lead to great wealth and that it is the means for a common man to make good by complete hard work. On the other contrary, this is not the characteristic that such writers choose to accentuate. To these people, as Dean affirms, is Ã¢â¬Å"a society that advocates this kind of self-improvement is a consumer society based on materialismÃ¢â¬ (Dean, 1990). It has, at its heart, an worthlessness that can never be assuaged by yet additional money in the bank. The salesmen gain enthusiasm from the promise of happiness and gratification in return for material success. Their clients too are as much a part of the capitalist hegemony where their purchase is their symbol of material success. The salesmen invest these purchases with remarkable, life-enhancing properties that embrace the guarantee of a better future. However, the truth is not the same. In the same way as the salesmenÃ¢â¬â¢s endless quest for unauthentic success is basically a chimera. The goods which they sell are quite insignificant. For that reason, the salesmen are taking advantage of those who, like them, must dream and think of a brighter future (Dean, 1990). Stafford in Ã¢â¬Å"Visions of a Promised LandÃ¢â¬ stops short of an allegorical reading of Ã¢â¬Å"Glengarry Glen RossÃ¢â¬ . Though, he does present the thought-provoking question that Aaronow, Levene and Moss are older Jewish men who may possibly be celebrated with Old Testament figures. Stafford also proposes that they have been paying attention to the real estate business partly by their personal searches for a Ã¢â¬Å"promised landÃ¢â¬ (1996). Ã¢â¬Å"Ricky Roma, Mitch and Murray are more likely to be gentilesÃ¢â¬ (Stafford, 1996) associated both with conquering Rome (in RomaÃ¢â¬â¢s case) and latter-day Christian entrepreneurial types. On the other hand, the frequent allusions to Old Testament figures and the motif of land for sale imply, Stafford believes, that Ã¢â¬Å"the division of the conflict into old versus new, age versus youth beliefs, gives a sense of historical perspectiveÃ¢â¬ (1996). Moreover, Ã¢â¬Å"these ancient traditions have been replaced with a modern day religion based on greed, deceit and spiritual bankruptcyÃ¢â¬ (Stafford, 1996). Similarly, in Ã¢â¬Å"Weasels and WisemenÃ¢â¬ , Leslie Kane concurs that the playwright utilizes allusions to archetypal biblical characters such as the Levites, Moses and Aaron. She adds that there is Ã¢â¬Å"as a link between ancient and modern worlds, values, aspirations and spiritualityÃ¢â¬ (Kane, 1999). Yet it is apparent that insensitive business corporation has, in a sense, changed ancient Judaic ideas of moral and social responsibilities. As a result, the characters in MametÃ¢â¬â¢s play are caught in a moral predicament. They are rapped between their craving to acquire the land or achieve from its sale and their longing for old value systems. David MametÃ¢â¬â¢s job is to create a closed moral universe and to leave an evaluation of the charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ behavior to the audience. He means the evaluation to be difficult rather than easy and for the audience to squirm on the hook. As Mamet has said in Ã¢â¬Å"Decay: Some Thoughts for ActorsÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"we need not fall victim to the liberal fallacy of assuming that because we can perceive a problem we are, de factor, not part of the problemÃ¢â¬ (1986). According to an interview made by David Savran with David Mamet, Savran asks Ã¢â¬Å"why the subtext is always about power, buying and sellingÃ¢â¬ (1988). Mamet responds Ã¢â¬Å"why not?Ã¢â¬ and defends it by saying Ã¢â¬Å"I guess most American literature, the American literature that I love, that I grew up on, is about business (and) thatÃ¢â¬â¢s what America is aboutÃ¢â¬ (Savran, 1988). In the point of view of David Mamet, the American Society is composed of human life based on business. When Mamet proposed the delineation of the difficult business world, he Ã¢â¬Å"demonstrated the import of human community as well as the inevitability of conflicts among peopleÃ¢â¬ (Wan-Ling, 2000). Whereas, the myth of the American Dream aims to persuade the audience or the salesmen that everybody has an equal opportunity to attain his success, on top of all material success. On the other hand, David Mamet aimed to Ã¢â¬Å"expose the reality that part of such myth brings not only a possibility of the conflict on benefits among people but also that of the blur of boundaries between businessmanship and friendshipÃ¢â¬ (Wan-Ling, 2000). In Ã¢â¬Å"Glengarry Glen RossÃ¢â¬ , the functions and effects of power due to the needs and interests of its characters are carefully revealed. Instead of simply presenting his observations on the exercise of power, David Mamet also indicated a reflection of the ruthlessness and gracelessness of the business world. More specifically, as an American playwright, David Mamet manifested in his play the realistic and materialistic American business world. Through Foucauldian analytics of power, it can be realized that the salesmen in Ã¢â¬Å"Glengarry Glen RossÃ¢â¬ are not, in the essence, destined to be repressed by the capitalistic system, nor by their colleagues. They have the choice and the ability to resist, which would dominantly bring them to a higher hierarchy in the business world. In essence, David Mamet adduces the business world in Ã¢â¬Å"Glengarry Glen RossÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"for highlighting the distortion of relationships in human communityÃ¢â¬ (Wan-Ling, 2000). Hence, it can be deduced that it is the characters who trap themselves. Moreover, it is the human beings who cause this distortion. And for this reason, David Mamet achieves his purpose of reminding the actualities of human relationships to his readers. References Bercovitch, S., Carswell, C. H., & Patell, C. R. K. (1999). The Cambridge History of American Literature. United Kingdom: The Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge. Bigsby, C. W. E. (2004). The Cambridge Companion to David Mamet. United Kingdom: The Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge. Dean, A. (1990). David Mamet: Language as Dramatic Action. New Jersey: Associated University Presses. George, K. (1994). Playwriting: The First Workshop. USA: Butterworth-Heinemann. Kane, L. (1999). Weasels and Wisemen: Ethics and Ethnicity in the Works of David Mamet. New York: St. MartinÃ¢â¬â¢s. Kane, L. (2004). The Art of Crime: The Plays and Films of Harold Pinter and David Mamet. New York: Routledge. King, K. (2001). Modern Dramatists. New York: Routledge. Mamet, D. (1983). Glengarry Glen Ross: A Play. New York: Grove Press. Mamet, D. (1986). Decay: Some Thoughts for Actions. New York: Viking. McDonough, C. J. (1963). Staging Masculinity: Male Identity in Contemporary American Drama. North Carolina: McFarland and Company, Inc., Publishers. Miller, A. (1996). Death of a Salesman. New York: Penguin Classics. Savran, D. (1988). In Their Own Words: Contemporary American Playwrights. New York: Theatre Communications Groups. Shapiro, S. A. (1984). Manhood: A New Definition. New York: G.P. PutnamÃ¢â¬â¢s Sons. Stafford, T. J. (1996). David MametÃ¢â¬â¢s Glengarry Glen Ross: Text and Performances. New York: Garland. Wan-Ling, C. (2000). Theatre of Power. Taiwan: National Sun Yat-Sen University. Ã
Friday, January 10, 2020
Voltaire's Candide is a novel that is interspersed with superficial characters and conceptual ideas that are critically exaggerated and satirized. The parody offers cynical themes disguised by mockeries and witticism, and the story itself presents a distinctive outlook on life narrowed to the concept of free will as opposed to blind faith driven by desire for an optimistic outcome. The crucial contrast in the story deals with irrational ideas as taught to Candide about being optimistic by Pangloss, his cheerful mentor, versus reality as viewed by the rest of the world through the eyes of the troubled character, Martin.This raises the question of whether or not the notion of free will is valid due to CandideÃ¢â¬â¢s peculiar timing of his expression for it. Some readers might think that Voltaire's novel Candide suggests that belief in free will is absurd. However, a close reading of the text suggests that Voltaire does not deny free will altogether. Candide is in complete control of his actions and ideas during times when an agreeable reality poses not to be enough, which explores VoltaireÃ¢â¬â¢s message that true reality is the ability to identify the deficiency of human conventions.CandideÃ¢â¬â¢s journey to attain the balance between submitting his will completely to the opinions and actions of others and taking control of his own life through blind faith highlights the notion of free will throughout VoltaireÃ¢â¬â¢s novel. Throughout the novel, Voltaire represents mankind as being consumed by immediate personal problems. When the characters of Candide virtually have no troubles or dilemmas, Voltaire illustrates how they do not express their happiness and contentment for it, but rather portray their feelings of boredom and a desire to involve themselves within the complex social constructs of the world.In chapter eighteen when Candide and his valet Cacambo enter the glorious city of El Dorado, Candide expresses the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s extravagance and how it i s incomparable to any other, even when compared to his overvalued Westphalia. Voltaire described Ã¢â¬Å"the public edifices raised as high as the clouds, the market places ornamented with a thousand columns, the fountains of spring waterÃ¢â¬ ¦which were paved with a kind of precious stone which gave off a delicious fragrancy like that of cloves and cinnamonÃ¢â¬ (45) to illustrate the decadence of El Dorado, and how it was virtually a utopia that no man could resist.However, Candide held enough free will within himself by opting to leave the splendor in order to Ã¢â¬Å"recover Miss CunegondeÃ¢â¬ (46). This event solidifies some readersÃ¢â¬â¢ opinions that belief in free will is absurd, for Candide uses it for irrational and perverse means by hoping for a finer future. El Dorado serves as a symbol to Candide that there is more the world has to offer after having been taught that he was already living in the best of all possible worlds while in Westphalia.The fact that he came across such magnificence paradoxically influenced his choice to leave since he thought he could find better than El Dorado, which demonstrates the faults of human conventions about how Candide could not distinguish between true and optimistic realities when he already had quite possibly the best world right in front of him. Once again, this substantiates readersÃ¢â¬â¢ ideas that free will is outlandish and nonsensical. Ã¢â¬Å"If we abide here we shall only be upon a footing with the rest, whereas, if we return to our old worldÃ¢â¬ ¦we shall be richer than all the kings in EuropeÃ¢â¬ (46).He is not aware of the ramifications of his actions, of his professed free will, and believes that only good things will come to him as a result of his foolish autonomy. Voltaire presents the characters as having emotional lives that shift between worries and boredom with almost no periods of prolonged happiness. PanglossÃ¢â¬â¢ influence instructs Candide to submit to blind faith that the o utcome of all will be well, and that all events happen for a reason. Ã¢â¬Å"It is demonstrable that things cannot be otherwise than as they are; for all being created for an end, all is necessarily for the best endÃ¢â¬ (1).Under these assumptions Candide says, Ã¢â¬Å"There can be no effect without a cause [Ã¢â¬ ¦] The whole is necessarily concatenated and arranged for the bestÃ¢â¬ (6). This philosophy that everything is fated to be good omits the validity of free will that Candide later claims to have since he is man and therefore above the animal world, because no matter what man does in part to shape the entirety of his future, Candide was taught that the outcome is predestined to yield an optimistic and hopeful reality. The belief that everything happens for a reason and where the reason is good is incompatible with the act of free will.Therefore, any efforts of free will are futile because they cannot change the predetermined outcome, making its concept essentially nonexi stent. This logical cycle strengthens and endorses readersÃ¢â¬â¢ ideas that free will is incongruous with faith. Candide is a naive character that is in complete control of his ideas and actions despite the influence from others. In chapter two when he is captured by Bulgarians and given the choice between death and running the gauntlet, he groundlessly uses his free will to receive an intense degree of torture and anguish. He was asked which he would like the best, to be whipped six-and-thirty times through all the regiment, or to receive at once twelve balls of lead in his brain. He vainly said that human will is free, and that he chose neither the one nor the otherÃ¢â¬ (4). Candide tries to argue that having free will meant not having to choose, because being a human retaining that free will meant he had the choice not to make a choice. However, his attempts are thwarted when he is forced to make a decision for his fate, where Ã¢â¬Å"he determined, in virtue of that gift of God called liberty, to run the gauntlet six-and-thirty times. He bore this twiceÃ¢â¬ (4).During a time when death clearly presented itself as the unusual superior choice, Candide foolishly picked the lesser of the two options. By choosing Ã¢â¬Å"four thousand strokes, which laid bare all his muscles and nerves, from the nape of his neck quite down to his rumpÃ¢â¬ (4), Voltaire proves to readers that having free will is an absurd notion. He reinforces readersÃ¢â¬â¢ ideas that preserving belief for free will only leads to self-destruction due to CandideÃ¢â¬â¢s imprudent use and inappropriate application of it. VoltaireÃ¢â¬â¢s Martin provides a slightly more realistic albeit largely negative slant of the world that readers can more easily identify with.Martin says that the world has been formed Ã¢â¬Å"to plague us to deathÃ¢â¬ and that Ã¢â¬Å"it is a chaos Ã¢â¬â a confused multitude, where everybody seeks pleasure and scarcely any one finds itÃ¢â¬ (54-55). In chapt er 21, Candide asks Martin if he believes Ã¢â¬Å"that men have always massacred each other as they do to-day, that they have always been liars, cheats, traitors, ingrates, brigands, idiots, thieves, scoundrels, gluttons, drunkards, misers, envious, ambitious, bloody-minded, calumniators, debauches, fanatics, hypocrites, and foolsÃ¢â¬ (55).Martin is deeply struck with pessimism, feeling the world is doomed to evil and destruction, and responds with a valid question as an answer: Ã¢â¬Å"Do you believe hawks have always eaten pigeons when they have found them? Ã¢â¬ (55) MartinÃ¢â¬â¢s insight to the fixed cycle of nature demonstrates how he perceives manÃ¢â¬â¢s nature to be just like one of beasts. Candide firmly counters and says Ã¢â¬Å"there is a vast deal of difference, for free willÃ¢â¬ (55) Candide, though easily influenced, senses that there is something more which exists between the contrasting worlds that both Pangloss and Martin have presented to him, which is free will.However, this claim is inconsistent with his belief that blind faith is the key to an optimistic reality, because once again, faith and free will are concepts that counteract and negate each other. At this point, readersÃ¢â¬â¢ opinions that free will is a meaningless and hollow notion is underpinned because of the fact that it is the only aspect that Candide cares to explore as the sole difference between man and animal that ultimately proves to be insignificant since man does not use it wisely or properly.In chapter two, Voltaire describes how Ã¢â¬Å"it was a privilege of the human as well as the animal species to make use of their legs as they pleasedÃ¢â¬ to justify going for a walk (4). Here, Candide states that animals in fact have their own will to walk, which contradicts what he says to Martin in chapter 21on the discussion about what differentiates man from animal. Throughout VoltaireÃ¢â¬â¢s satirical novel Candide, readers are exposed to the two major themes reg arding fate and free will, and how each belief is exemplified through various hollow characters such as Pangloss, Candide, and Martin.Candide frequently wavers between the two beliefs, and Voltaire ultimately comes to the conclusion that people have free will and must shape their own future based on their actions in the present rather than pursuing the idea that blind faith driven by desire will lead to optimistic results. In the end, Candide achieves equilibrium by accepting that he must exist between spiritual devotion and unpredictability through free will, when he says, Ã¢â¬Å"we must cultivate our garden,Ã¢â¬ as Voltaire famously declares in the ultimate chapter (87).This seemingly superficial parody engages the reader and makes them reflect about whether or not free will is actually free will and what aspect of Candide is in control of it. Readers perceive how human nature is incapable of constant happiness because of how desire handicaps free will, and are ultimately made aware of how Candide must create his own reality based on action rather than blind faith.